Lancaster Index to Defence & International Security Literature

User Guide (Internet version)


Section 1. Access for Non-Subscribers (free)
Section 2. Login
Section 3. How to Subscribe
Section 4. Changing the User Details
Section 5. Using Advanced Search
Section 6. Using the Archive
Section 7. Exploiting the Indexes
Appendix 1. Overview of LI Database Structure and Contents
Appendix 2a. The LI Category Index (in order of code)
Appendix 2b. The LI Category Index (in order of topic)

Section 1: Access for Non-Subscribers (free)

Using the free “Search the Database” facility:


Enter the term(s) on which you need to search into the box labelled “Look For”, and click on Go.


Suppose that you want to find material on anthrax. Enter the value anthrax (without quotation marks), and click on Go. After a few seconds, LI will return a view of the citations in which this word appears. If you enter a pair of words, such as “asymmetric warfare”, LI will return a view of citations containing those two words.


This free look-up service is intended for general users wishing to understand no more than the shape and direction of material on a selected topic - so the citations lists (or views) which it generates do not include publication data relating to the volume, issue, date or page references. Researchers requiring specific references, or access to LI’s Advanced Search facility and to the Archive section, will need to sign up for a paid subscription, as described in Section 3 below.

Section 2: Login

Subscribers can login by entering their User Name and Password.

Users on an institutional subscription may experience a login failure producing the following message:

Sorry but the maximum number of users for this account has been exceeded. Please try again later.

This means that the full number of concurrent users allowed by your institutional subscription is currently accessing the LI database, and that you will have to wait for a slot to be freed up. If this happens repeatedly, please contact your library services manager about extending the subscription to allow for more users.

Section 3: How to Subscribe

To subscribe, or to just see the subscription rates, click on Subscriptions on the Home Page.

Step 1: Select your desired subscription rate. Individual users with infrequent access needs can choose a low-cost day-rate.

Note (1): Institutional rates allow a limited number of concurrent sessions from an undefined number of workstations for a single User Name/Password combination. Institutional subscribers can increase the number of users at any time. The system will register the different expiry dates for mid-period increases.

Note (2): Institutional subscribers who require a pro forma invoice, or who require their subscription to run from a particular date, should contact MPR by fax at +44 1865 396050 or by email at An administration charge of $20 is charged to cover costs of processing pro-forma orders and setting up subscriptions accounts offline. Subscription agents should enter subscriptions on behalf of their clients at the normal rates, and charge their services to their clients.

Step 2: Select the currency you prefer (UK pounds or US dollars).

Step 3: Enter the User Name you wish to use when accessing the database. This has to be unique on our system - so we recommend using your email address to guarantee acceptance.

Step 4: Enter the Password you wish to use. This should comprise only letters or numerals without spaces or other characters, and is case-sensitive. You will need to confirm it by entering it a second time.

Note: LI allows subscribers to change their passwords at will. It is important not to divulge your password to others, in case they change the password without your consent, leaving you locked out of the database.

Step 5: Complete the billing information and credit card details, and confirm the transaction.

Note: Credit card details are transmitted using 128-bit SSL (secure socket layer) encryption.

As soon as the transaction is confirmed, you have instant access to the database. For future access, enter your User Name and Password values into the boxes provided in the Subscribers section of the Home Page, then click on Login.

Section 4: Changing the User Details

You can change your password or email address details after Login by clicking on User Details.

Section 5: Using Advanced Search

5.1 Introduction:

LI’s Advanced Search facility is only available to paid subscribers, and provides separate indexes for variable-focus retrieval. These indexes (described in Section 6 of this guide) can be used singly or in combination to construct a search statement. Various filters can be selected to modify the output desired. When you click on Search, the search engine returns a view comprising all the citations whose index values match those specified by the search statement, as modified by any filter(s).

5.2 Constructing Simple and Compound Queries:

Click on Search Database.

Construct the search term line. This requires four steps, as illustrated in the following practice exercise:

Step 1 - Select an Index: select the index you wish to search, using the drop-down selection box; for this example, choose “Category Codes”;

Step 2 - Specify how to compare items: select the required comparison operator, using the drop-down selection box; for this example, choose “Starting with”;

Step 3 - Specify what you are looking for: type in the search term; for this example, type in “D” (or “d” - you may enter either lower-case or upper-case characters); this means that the search engine will return to you all the citations in the “D” category (Intelligence & Information) - for further details on the Categories Index, see Section 6.4 below.

Step 4 - Add it to your statement: click on Add to add this search term line to the query box.

If you were now to click on Search, the search engine would return all LI material on the broad topic of ‘Intelligence &. Information’. This would constitute a simple query.

However, you can construct a compound query by adding multiple search term lines to the query box. To do this, you simply repeat the above procedure, so as to construct another search term line and add it to the query box. For this example, keep the Category Codes index selection, but choose the “Exactly matching” comparison operator, and type in the search term “E03” (E zero 3). This will select the citations in the third sub-category of the E (Operations) main category dealing with peace-keeping and peace support operations.

If you now click on Add, you will see that this second search term line has been added to the query box. (Note that and is the default connective between the two search term lines; click on the connective to toggle it between and and or).

If you now click on Search, the search engine will return those items whose index values match both of the search term lines, i.e. it will return to you a view of material relating to intelligence aspects of peace-keeping and peace support operations.

Items in a view are presented in groups of twenty, with each group (or part thereof) presented on a separate page -- thus a view comprising 73 items will be presented in four pages, with the fourth page containing only 13 items.

If you mistype a search term line, or change your mind about it, click on its “Wrong” button to the right.

Any of the indexes can be used in any combination, and once you become familiar with the type of material contained in the database, you will quickly come to appreciate the precision with which a carefully-framed search statement can retrieve material relevant to your information requirement. Some helpful examples are provided at the end of Section 7 “Exploiting the Indexes”.

5.3 Filter options:

In the lower right corner of the Advanced Search screen you will see four boxes, which can optionally be used to refine the view returned by the search statement:

5.4 Changing the connective:

The default connective in compound queries is the and connective, so that the view comprises a conjunction of search term lines. This can be toggled between and and or, by clicking on the connective itself.

5.5 Using bracketed search terms:

Sometimes the mixed use of and and or connectives in a compound query can lead to ambiguity. For example, the query “Geographical Index equal to AUSTRALIA and Keywords equal to FRIGATE or Keywords equal to DESTROYER” could yield a very different view from that intended, if the first two search terms were resolved together - you would get a view of Australia’s frigates and the world’s destroyers! The query obviously requires the last two terms to be resolved together. This is accomplished by the use of brackets as shown in the following diagram:

The brackets are added (and removed) by clicking on the appropriate boxes in the search query grid, immediately before and after the group of terms to be resolved together.

6. Using the Archive

6.1 Introducing the Archive

The Archive, which is only open to paid subscribers, sets out the full contents of the LI database, organized in alphabetical order of source publication title. Each publication data page includes a link to the publication’s schedule, organized by year of publication, which provides links to the contents lists, with citations (including abstracts) of the articles indexed in each issue.

While the Archive does not provide the selective retrieval power of the indexed database, it does provide a useful means of surveying the depth and range of individual publications, as well as the climate of concerns at a particular time. The citations are listed with their index values, showing the means by which they could be individually retrieved by the search engine.

The real power of the Archive lies in revealing what you don’t know. Whereas the indexes assume that you to know what there is to search for, the Archive sets out all the material you never heard of. It also supports greater depth of understanding: for example, if you are interested in US Marine Corps thinking on its future roles, missions and capabilities, there really is no substitute for trawling through the last few years’ worth of the Marine Corps Gazette. The Archive enables you to do this.

6.2 Accessing the Archive

Step 1: Click on the Archive link on the menu bar.

Step 2: Click on the initial letter of the publication you wish to inspect.

Step 3: Click on the relevant title in the list of publications beginning with that letter. This presents you with the publication data page, which includes publisher contact information.

Step 4: Click on the publication title. This will present you with a listing of the years for which material from the selected publication is held in the LI database.

Step 5: Click on the year og interest to you.

Step 6: Click on the specific issue you wish to see. This will return a view of that issue’s contents.

7. Exploiting the Indexes

7.1 The Indexes Available:

Each citation may contain one or more entries in any or each of the following indexes:

The indexes may be searched singly (simple query) or in combination (compound query), as explained in Section 4.2 above.

7.2 Notes on Compilation Practice:

The compilation of LI has required constant minor decisions as to what indexing conventions to use, in order to try and maintain consistency across the database. For example, it might seem obvious that an item on heroism should have that word as a Keyword index entry - but the next item in this topic area might be about bravery, and the user might in any case be trying to locate material by searching on courage or gallantry. Such problems of judgement, which reflect an unavoidable subjectivity in a field where ambiguities and overlaps abound, can be found at many points in LI, and the purpose of this section is to inform the user how some of them have been approached with respect to each index.

The general practice in writing summary text or comment has been to use English spelling. However, when quotations have been taken from US sources, they have been left with US spellings intact, as written. Quotations from foreign-language sources have nearly always been translated.

7.3 Author Index:

Entries comprise last name and initials separated by a single space. Initials are given exactly as indicated by the first name(s) as published, thus ‘Bill Sweetman’ is indexed as ‘SWEETMAN B’, and ‘Tony Preston’ as ‘PRESTON T’. LI has been designed for an international user base, and not everyone might know that ‘Tony’ was a diminutive of ‘Anthony’. Indeed, it might not be a diminutive at all, but the actual given name.

Apologies are due to authors whose family and given names have been transposed, but it is not always easy to determine the correct order - sometimes an article is published as signed by ‘Singh Bilveer’, sometimes by ‘Bilveer Singh’. Maybe they are different people. Authors whose names have been incorrectly entered are invited to email LI at so that errors can be corrected.

Author index entries can also include the names of individuals whose work constitutes the principal subject under discussion (as in a review article), or who have joined in a debate over a particular item, usually in the correspondence columns of the source publication involved.

The phrase ‘as published’ underlined at the start of this sub-section is important. For example, it means that items by Christopher Donnelly will be indexed under ‘Donnelly C’, and that a search on this index value may thus yield material by Gen Charles Donnelly USAF. It also means that an article signed by Mr Donnelly as ‘Christopher N Donnelly’ will be indexed under ‘Donnelly CN’, and would not be found by a search on ‘Donnelly C’, unless you used the ‘Starting with’ (stem-searching) comparison operator already discussed.

Note: this example illustrates an important principle in using the LI search engine efficiently - never be unnecessarily specific. In this case, it is more efficient to search loosely on ‘Donnelly C’ (using the stem-search facility) and accept the risk of collecting material by other writers having that name and initial, and which may not be germane to your enquiry, than to search tightly on ‘Donnelly CN’ and miss a useful article which he chose to sign without using his middle initial.

7.4 The Category Codes Index:

Each citation has one or more category code values to indicate its subject matter, and will often have more than one. Each value is indexed in the Category Codes index, which is used to retrieve records by subject category. A citation can have as many category code index values as may be appropriate to the contents of the full-text original document. No “either/or” rule is applied - if an item could be indexed under either of two categories, it gets indexed under both.

The Category Codes Index has a tree structure, with sub-categories and sub-sub-categories. Only the lowest-level category codes are used as index values in citations. Thus, for example, there is no record in the database with the category index value “A5” (arms control) - all arms control material will carry one or more of the lowest-level sub-categories, i.e. A5.1 (inventory levels), A5.2 (verification and compliance) or A5.3 (counter-proliferation). If you need to retrieve any A5 material irrespective of sub-category, you will need to use the “starting with” stem-searching facility already described in Section 2 “Searching the Database”.

Category codes are the primary tool in searching the database for relevant material. Once you become familiar with LI, you will be able to recognize category codes (and hence the subject scope of a specific record) at a glance. Until that stage of familiarity is reached, however, the codes will naturally be obscure, and you will find it necessary to consult the Category Codes Index listings provided in Appendix 2 below. The listings are in two parts - in order of category code, and order of descriptive text.

The category code structure is the most powerful tool in the search engine for exploiting the LI database, and information professionals will find that a few minutes spent on studying it, so as to understand “what has been placed where”, will be repaid an hundred-fold in terms of research productivity gained through improved search precision.

7.5 The Keyword Index:

LI maintains an index of words or phrases, which can be used to locate material according to topic. It is more narrowly focused than the Category Codes Index, which deals with general subject areas. For example, an item might carry the category code value “J13.1” (fixed wing aircraft) and the keyword value “F-16”.

This variability of focus is useful in designing a query to obtain a desired degree of search precision. For example, a search on “Geographical Index equal to ‘TAIWAN’ and Category Codes Index equal to ‘J13.1’” yields a general view of that country’s fixed-wing combat aircraft inventory, while “Geographical Index equal to ‘TAIWAN’ and Keywords Index equal to “F-16” yield a more specific view of particular aircraft type.

The Keywords Index is used for most proper names other than those of countries/regions (for which the Geographical Index is used) and of organizations (for which the Organization Index is used). It is also used to cover historical events and personages, as well as topics. Operations, battles and exercises are given by their names alone - e.g. DESERT STORM, DIEN BIEN PHU, ROVING SANDS. There is fertile ground for inconsistencies, some of which have defeated resolution. Should Dien Bien Phu, being a place, not be in the Geographical index? Or should material on the Manchurian campaign be indexed in the Geographical index under MANCHURIA? When in doubt, search both, or use the Global Index.

In respect of the Keywords Index, two further aspects of compilation practice should be noted.

7.6 The Geographical Index:

This is used to locate material by specific country or area; it does not go down to district or city level, so that places such as CHINA LAKE or NURRUNGAR are indexed using the Keywords Index. Again, there will be grey areas - is DIEGO GARCIA a military base (keyword) or an island (geographical)? In such cases, the safest solution is to search both indexes, or use the Global index.

Post-partition Korean material is indexed on either ‘KOREA N’ or ‘KOREA S’ (or both), and ‘PACIFIC’ has a variety of suffixes. ‘GERMANY’ is used only for the country pre-1946 -- otherwise ‘FRG’ (or, before 1989, ‘GDR’) has been used; likewise, ‘RUSSIA’ has been used for the pre- and post-Soviet state. Partly as a consequence of the construction of this Index having started in 1983, there are relatively few geographical index entries for ‘USA’ or ‘USSR’, as almost 90% of the literature at that time would have required one or other of them. Instead, the regional suffix ‘.02’ (North America) and ‘.09’ (Eastern Europe & Eurasia) have been taken as sufficient, with “USA” and “USSR” only provided where regional suffixes are absent.

7.7 The Organization Index:

This index identifies material relating to specific organizations, such as a particular agency or manufacturing company, e.g. ‘CIA’, ‘DERA’ or ‘BOEING’.

7.8 Source/Year Index:

This index enables you to retrieve material from a particular source publication and, if desired, from a particular year of publication. The values in this index consist of a source publication search code separated by a single space from the year of publication, e.g. ‘MCG 1993’ or ‘BAR 1995’.

As you become familiar with LI, you will increasingly be able to remember the search codes that you need. With many of them the search code is obvious enough, e.g. MCG for the Marine Corps Gazette, or BAR for the British Army Review. Some are not so obvious however (particularly where two journals compete for the same initials, such as Strategic Analysis and Scientific American, or Adelphi Papers and Asian Perspective). In such cases, you should consult the relevant data page in the Archive, where the search code for each source publication is specified.

Example: Suppose you wish to search for material in the US Army War College journal Parameters, but do not know the search code used by LI for this publication. Click on Archive/P/Parameters, and you will see that it is ‘PARMS’.

Please note that the all the values in this index comprise the search code followed by the year of publication, and that a search on “Source/Year exactly matching ‘PARMS’” by itself would thus yield a null view.

If you want any material from a journal source, irrespective of year of publication (for example, in finding material on leadership in the Marine Corps Gazette), then you need to use the stem-searching technique already described, by choosing the “Starting with” comparison operator.

Note: when using the ‘Starting with’ option to retrieve material from a particular journal, type a space after the Search Code before clicking on ‘Add’ - otherwise, for example, a search on “Source/Year starting with ‘SC’” (Strategic Comments) might include material from SCIAM (Scientific American); in this case, the correct search term should be “Starting with SC<space>”.

7.9 Title Words Index:

This index is used to retrieve citations where the specified word exists in the document title.

7.10 Global Index:

This indexes individual words not only all in the fields covered by the specialist indexes already discussed, but also the text of all abstracts.

You may reasonably ask, why use the specialist indexes at all, if the Global Index indexes everything? There are two points to bear in mind here:

7.11 Examples of Index Combinations in Compound Queries:

LI’s index structure allows you to search the database with a variable degree of precision, ranging from a general trawl through broadly-defined topics to a search for quite specific combinations of index values.

The following examples may help illustrate the immense range of possibilities for defining your own views of the database through appropriate index combination. The best way to achieve easy mastery of the Search Engine is to practice constructing and executing these searches, along with others of your own invention.

The combinatorial possibilities are limited only by your knowledge and imagination. The greater your familiarity with the subject matter, the better your ability to construct the search statements to retrieve what you need.

Appendix 1: Overview of LI Database Structure and Content

The Lancaster Index (LI) is a bibliographic database of open-source journal articles and monographs relating to defence and international security affairs. Nearly all of these are held on the shelves of the Library at the University of Lancaster, UK. The database comprises indexed and cross-referenced citations, usually with descriptive summaries or abstracts, of some 330 publications since the mid-1980s.

These include:

The database is updated weekly, at a rate of approximately 10,000 new citations per year. The current number of records in the database, along with the date of the last update, is stated on the Home Page.

Because of the quantity of material being published over a complex field of inter-related subjects, LI focuses mainly on the secondary sources - the full-length analyses in which authors have often carried out much research on the primary sources, and have provided detailed supporting references. These can themselves be a valuable resource to researchers, in pointing to further materials for study. The data format therefore includes a full bibliographic description (including all graphic and tabular material, plus a count of footnotes and literature references). Citations also include a concise abstract, or description of the contents, wherever that might assist a decision on research effort investment.

Appendix 2a: LI Categories Index (in order of code)

Note: The codes actually used in LI are shown in bold face. These are all lowest-level codes. If you need to use a higher-level code, stem-searching will be required using the "Starting with" comparison operator.

A1: Foreign Policy
A1.01 Western Europe A1.02 North America A1.03 Central & South America A1.04 Far East & Australasia A1.05 South & South East Asia A1.06 Middle & Near East A1.07 Africa A1.08 NATO & the West A1.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia A1.10 UN and Global
A2 Defence Policy
A3 Domestic Policy
A3.01 Western Europe A3.02 North America A3.03 Central & South America A3.04 Far East & Australasia A3.05 South & South East Asia A3.06 Middle & Near East A3.07 Africa A3.08 NATO & the West A3.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia
A4: Economic & Trade Policy
A4.01 Western Europe A4.02 North America A4.03 Central & South America A4.04 Far East & Australasia A4.05 South & South East Asia A4.06 Middle & Near East A4.07 Africa A4.08 NATO & the West A4.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia A4.10 Global
A5: Arms Control & Disarmament
A5.1 Inventory Levels A5.2 Verification & Compliance A5.3 Counter-Proliferation
A6: NBC Policy
A6.1 Nuclear Warfare A6.2 Biological Warfare A6.3 Chemical Warfare
A7: Terrorism, Organized Crime & Counter-Insurgency
A7.1 Terrorism A7.2 Organized Crime & Drug Trafficking A7.3 Insurgency & Subversion
A8 Environmental & Ecological Policy
A9 Religion and Politics
B1: NBC Strategy & Doctrine
B1.1 Nuclear Warfare B1.2 Biological Warfare B1.3 Chemical Warfare
B2: Conventional Warfare
B2.1 Ground Environment B2.2 Sea Power B2.3 Air Power B2.4 General Principles & Joint Warfare
B3 Unconventional Warfare
B4 Space Warfare
C1: Ground Forces
C1.01 Western Europe C1.02 North America C1.03 Central & South America C1.04 Far East & Australasia C1.05 South & South-East Asia C1.06 Middle & Near East C1.07 Africa C1.08 NATO & the West C1.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia C1.10 UN
C2: Naval & Maritime Forces
C2.01 Western Europe C2.02 North America C2.03 Central & South America C2.04 Far East & Australasia C2.05 South & South-East Asia C2.06 Middle & Near East C2.07 Africa C2.08 NATO & the West C2.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia C2.10 UN
C3: Military Aerospace
C3.01 Western Europe C3.02 North America C3.03 Central & South America C3.04 Far East & Australasia C3.05 South & South-East Asia C3.06 Middle & Near East C3.07 Africa C3.08 NATO & the West C3.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia C3.10 UN
C4:  Government & Other
C4.01 Western Europe C4.02 North America C4.03 Central & South America C4.04 Far East & Australasia C4.05 South & South-East Asia C4.06 Middle & Near East C4.07 Africa C4.08 NATO & the West C4.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia C4.10 UN
D1 Espionage & Counter-Espionage
D2: Surveillance & Reconnaissance
D2.1 Strategic D2.2 Operational D2.3 Tactical
D3 Intelligence Analysis & Handling
D4 Deception, Concealment & Surprise
D5 Intelligence Policy & Management
E01 Ground Operations -- Conventional
E02 Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC)
E03 Peace-Keeping & Peace Enforcement
E04: Air Operations
E04.1 Tactical Air Power & Air-to-Ground Combat E04.2 Airborne & Airmobile
E05 Naval & Amphibious
E06 Home & Civil Defence
E07 Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency
E08 Operational Planning
E09 Operational Reserves
E10 Command, Control & Communications (C3)
E11 Clandestine & Special Forces
E12: Special Conditions: Climate & Terrain
E12.1 Cold Weather Operations E12.2 Desert & Heat E12.3 Jungle & Close Country E12.4 Mountains E12.5 Urban Warfare E12.6 Water Obstacles
F1 Combined Arms
F2 Infantry
F3 Armour
F4 Artillery
F5 Special Forces
F6 Engineer
F7 Night Combat
F8 Air Defence
F9 Tactical Planning & Doctrine (Land Warfare)
G1 Morale
G2 Leadership & Command
G3 Personnel & Financial
G4 Military Law & Regulations
G5 Military Medicine & Health Care
G6 Prisoners of War & Internment
G7 Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization
G8 Reserve Components
H1 General Systems & Concepts
H2 Transport & Resupply
H3 Commodities
H4 Repairs & Maintenance
H5 Clothing & Equipment
H6 Quartering & Construction
J01: Missiles & Rockets
J01.1 Strategic J01.2 Surface-to-Surface J01.3 Surface-to-Air J01.4 Air-to-Surface J01.5 Air-to-Air J01.6 Anti-Armour J01.7 Guidance Systems & Decoy Measures
J02 Armoured Combat Vehicles
J03 Artillery
J04 Infantry Weapons & Small Arms
J05 Engineer
J06: Command, Control, & Communications (C3)
J06.1 C3 Systems J06.2 Electronic Warfare J06.3 Electronics J06.4 Computers (Hardware) J06.5 Computers (Software) J06.6 Man-Machine Interface & Robotics
J07 Logistics
J08: Mines, Ammunition & Explosive Ordnance (including clearance and disposal technologies)
J08.1 Land Mines J08.2 Naval Mines J08.3 Ammunition and Explosives
J09: Surveillance & Intelligence
J09.1 Radar & Radio J09.2 Optical, Optronic & Acoustic J09.3 Surface Platforms J09.4 Aerospace Platforms
J10 Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC)
J11 Power, Fuels & Engines
J12 Naval
J13: Aviation
J13.1 Fixed Wing J13.2 Rotary Wing J13.3 Lighter Than Air
J14 Navigation & Position Location
J15 Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency
J16 Air Defence
J17 Directed Energy Weapons
J18 Space
J19 Environment & Weather
J20 Materials Science
K1 Policy & Planning
K2 Research, Development & Acquisition
K3 Programme Management, Manufacture & Testing
K4: Military Industry
K4.1 Manufacturers, Markets & Transfers K4.2 Equipment Exhibitions
L1 Staff & Command
L2 Field
L3 General
L4 Simulation & Modelling
L5 Technical
M1 Propaganda, Disinformation & Counter-Measures
M2 Military-Media Relations and Censorship
M3 Military Aid to the Civil Power & Humanitarian Intervention
M4 Conservation & Environment
N1 Studies & Research
N2 Pressure Groups
N3 Ethics & War
P1 Before 1800
P2 From 1800 to 1899
P3 From 1900 to 1918
P4: From 1919 to 1945
P4.1 From 1919 to 1939 (the interwar period) P4.2 From 1939-45 (WW2 in Europe) P4.3 From 1941-45 (WW2 in the Pacific)
P5: Since 1945
P5.01 Western Europe P5.02 North America P5.03 Central & South America P5.04 Far East & Australasia P5.05 South & South East Asia P5.06 Middle & Near East P5.07 Africa P5.08 NATO & the West P5.09 Eastern Europe & Eurasia
P6 General Articles & Historiography

Appendix 2b: LI Categories Index (in order of topic)

The following table lists the LI categories in alphabetical order of topic, showing the corresponding database category code in the right-hand column. The listing is cross-referenced, e.g the category G2 "Administration -- Leadership & Command" is also indexed under "Leadership" and "Command".

Administration -- Leadership & Command G2
Administration -- Military Law & Regulations G4
Administration -- Military Medicine & Health Care G5
Administration -- Morale G1
Administration -- Personnel & Financial G3
Administration -- Prisoners of War & Internment G6
Administration -- Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization G7
Administration -- Reserve Components G8
Aid to the Civil Power (Images & Influences -- Military Aid to the Civil Power) M3
Air Defence Tactics (Tactics -- Air Defence) F8
Air Defence Technology (Technology -- Air Defence) J16
Air Operations (Operations -- Tactical Air Power & Air-to-Ground Combat) E04.1
Air Power, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Air Power)) B2.3
Airborne Operations (Operations -- Airborne & Airmobile) E04.2
Airmobile Operations (Operations -- Airborne & Airmobile) E04.2
Airships (Technology -- Aviation (Lighter Than Air)) J13.3
Ammunition (Technology -- Ammunition and Explosives) J08.3
Amphibious Operations (Operations -- Naval & Amphibious) E05
Armour Tactics (Tactics -- Armour) F3
Armoured Vehicles (Technology -- Armoured Combat Vehicles) J02
Arms Control & Disarmament -- Counter-Proliferation A5.3
Arms Control & Disarmament -- Inventory Levels A5.1
Arms Control & Disarmament -- Verification & Compliance A5.2
Artillery Tactics (Tactics -- Artillery) F4
Artillery Technology (Technology -- Artillery) J03
Aviation, Fixed Wing (Technology -- Aviation (Fixed Wing)) J13.1
Aviation, LTA (Technology -- Aviation (LTA)) J13.3
Aviation, Rotary Wing (Technology -- Aviation (Rotary Wing)) J13.2
Biological Warfare, Operations (Operations -- Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC)) E02
Biological Warfare, Policy (NBC Policy -- Biological Warfare) A6.2
Biological Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Biological Warfare) B1.2
C3 Systems (Technology -- Command, Control, & Communications (C3)) J06.1
Civil Defence (Operations -- Home & Civil Defence) E06
Chemical Warfare, Operations (Operations -- Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC)) E02
Chemical Warfare, Policy (NBC Policy -- Chemical Warfare) A6.3
Chemical Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Chemical Warfare) B1.3
Clandestine Operations (Operations -- Clandestine & Special Forces) E11
Climate & Terrain -- Cold Weather & Arctic E12.1
Climate & Terrain -- Desert & Heat E12.2
Climate & Terrain -- Jungle & Close Country E12.3
Climate & Terrain -- Mountains E12.4
Climate & Terrain -- Urban Warfare E12.5
Climate & Terrain -- Water Obstacles E12.6
Close Country (Climate & Terrain -- Jungle & Close Country) E12.3
Clothing (Logistics -- Clothing & Equipment) H5
Cold Weather (Climate & Terrain -- Cold Weather & Arctic E12.2
Combined Arms Tactics (Tactics -- Combined Arms) F1
Command (Administration -- Leadership & Command) G2
Command & Control (C3) E10
Commodities (Logistics -- Commodities) H3
Computers, Hardware (Technology -- Computers (Hardware)) J06.4
Computers, Software (Technology -- Computers (Software)) J06.5
Conservation (Images & Influences -- Conservation & Environment) M4
Concealment (Deception, Concealment & Surprise) D4
Counter-Espionage (Espionage & Counter-Espionage) D1
Counter-Insurgency Operations (Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency Operations) E07
Counter-Insurgency, Technology (Technology -- Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency J15
Counter-Proliferation (Arms Control & Disarmament -- Counter-Proliferation) A5.3
Deception, Concealment & Surprise D4
Defence Policy -- Africa A2.07
Defence Policy -- Central & South America A2.03
Defence Policy -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia A2.09
Defence Policy -- Far East & Australasia A2.04
Defence Policy -- Middle & Near East A2.06
Defence Policy -- NATO & the West A2.08
Defence Policy -- North America A2.02
Defence Policy -- South & South East Asia A2.05
Defence Policy -- Western Europe A2.01
Demobilization (Administration -- Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization) G7
Desert Operations (Climate & Terrain -- Desert & Heat) E12.2
Directed Energy Weapons (Technology -- Directed Energy Weapons) J17
Disestablishment (Administration -- Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization) G7
Disinformation (Images & Influences -- Propaganda, Disinformation & Counter-Measures) M1
Domestic Policy -- Africa A3.07
Domestic Policy -- Central & South America A3.03
Domestic Policy -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia A3.09
Domestic Policy -- Far East & Australasia A3.04
Domestic Policy -- Middle & Near East A3.06
Domestic Policy -- NATO & the West A3.08
Domestic Policy -- North America A3.02
Domestic Policy -- South & South East Asia A3.05
Domestic Policy -- Western Europe A3.01
Economic & Trade Policy -- Africa A4.07
Economic & Trade Policy -- Central & South America A4.03
Economic & Trade Policy -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia A4.09
Economic & Trade Policy -- Far East & Australasia A4.04
Economic & Trade Policy -- Global A4.10
Economic & Trade Policy -- Middle & Near East A4.06
Economic & Trade Policy -- NATO & the West A4.08
Economic & Trade Policy -- North America A4.02
Economic & Trade Policy -- South & South East Asia A4.05
Economic & Trade Policy -- Western Europe A4.01
Electronic Warfare (Technology -- Electronic Warfare (EW)) J06.2
Electronics (Technology -- Electronics) J06.3
Engineer Tactics (Tactics -- Engineer) F6
Engineer Technology (Technology -- Engineer) J05
Engines (Technology -- Power, Fuels & Engines) J11
Environment & Weather (Technology -- Environment & Weather) J19
Environmental & Ecological Policy A8
Equipment (Logistics -- Clothing & Equipment) H5
Espionage & Counter-Espionage D1
Ethics (Peace Studies & Conflict Research (Ethics & War)) N3
Explosives (Technology -- Ammunition and Explosives) J08.3
Financial (Administration -- Personnel & Financial) G3
Fixed Wing Aircraft (Technology -- Aviation (Fixed Wing)) J13.1
Foreign Policy -- Africa A1.07
Foreign Policy -- Central & South America A1.03
Foreign Policy -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia A1.09
Foreign Policy -- Far East & Australasia A1.04
Foreign Policy -- Middle & Near East A1.06
Foreign Policy -- NATO & the West A1.08
Foreign Policy -- North America A1.02
Foreign Policy -- South & South East Asia A1.05
Foreign Policy -- UN and Global A1.10
Foreign Policy -- Western Europe A1.01
Fuels (Technology -- Power, Fuels & Engines) J11
Ground Operations -- Conventional E01
Ground Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Ground Environment)) B2.1
Health Care (Administration -- Military Medicine & Health Care) G5
Helicopters (Technology -- Aviation (Rotary Wing)) J13.2
Historiography (Military & Political History -- General Articles & Historiography) P6
History -- see Military & Political History
Home Defence (Operations -- Home & Civil Defence) E06
Humanitarian Operations (Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention) E03
Images & Influences -- Conservation & Environment M4
Images & Influences -- Military Aid to the Civil Power M3
Images & Influences -- Military-Media Relations and Censorship M2
Images & Influences -- Propaganda, Disinformation & Counter-Measures M1
Infantry Tactics (Tactics -- Infantry) F2
Intelligence Analysis & Handling D3
Intelligence Policy & Management D5
Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency Operations E07
Internal Security, Technology (Technology -- Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency) J15
Internment (Administration -- Prisoners of War & Internment) G6
Intervention Operations (Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention) E03
Jungle Warfare (Climate & Terrain -- Jungle & Close Country) E12.3
Land Mines (Technology -- Land Mines) J08.1
Leadership (Administration -- Leadership & Command) G2
Logistics -- Clothing & Equipment H5
Logistics -- Commodities H3
Logistics -- General Systems & Concepts H1
Logistics -- Repairs & Maintenance H4
Logistics, Technology (Technology -- Logistics) J07
Logistics -- Transport & Resupply H2
Low Intensity Conflict (Strategy & Doctrine -- Unconventional Warfare) B3
Maintenance (Logistics -- Repairs & Maintenance) H4
Man-Machine Interface (Technology -- Man-Machine Interface & Robotics) J06.6
Materials Science (Technology -- Materials Science) J20
Medicine (Administration -- Military Medicine & Health Care) G5
Military Law (Administration -- Military Law & Regulations) G4
Military-Media Relations (Images & Influences -- Military-Media Relations and Censorship) M2
Military Operations Other than War (Strategy & Doctrine -- Unconventional Warfare) B3
Military Regulations (Administration -- Military Law & Regulations) G4
Military & Political History (General Articles & Historiography) P6
Military & Political History -- before 1800 P1
Military & Political History -- from 1800 to 1899 P2
Military & Political History -- from 1900 to 1918 P3
Military & Political History -- from 1919 to 1945 (the interwar period) P4.1
Military & Political History -- from 1919 to 1945 (WW2 in Europe) P4.2
Military & Political History -- from 1919 to 1945 (WW2 in the Pacific) P4.3
Military & Political History since 1945: Africa P5.07
Military & Political History since 1945: Central & South America P5.03
Military & Political History since 1945: Eastern Europe & Eurasia P5.09
Military & Political History since 1945: Far East & Australasia P5.04
Military & Political History since 1945: Middle & Near East P5.06
Military & Political History since 1945: NATO & the West P5.08
Military & Political History since 1945: North America P5.02
Military & Political History since 1945: South & South East Asia P5.05
Military & Political History since 1945: Western Europe P5.01
Military & Political History: General Articles & Historiography P6
Military Procurement -- Manufacturers, Markets & Transfers K4.1
Military Procurement -- Military Equipment Exhibitions K4.2
Military Procurement -- Policy & Planning K1
Military Procurement -- Programme Management, Manufacture & Testing K3
Military Procurement -- Research, Development & Acquisition K2
Mobilization (Administration -- Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization) G7
Morale (Administration -- Morale) G1
Mountain Warfare (Climate & Terrain -- Mountains) E12.4
Naval Operations (Operations -- Naval & Amphibious) E05
Naval Warfare (Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Sea Power)) B2.2
NBC Policy -- Biological Warfare A6.2
NBC Policy -- Chemical Warfare A6.3
NBC Policy -- Nuclear Warfare & Technology A6.1
Night Combat (Tactics -- Night Combat) F7
Nuclear operations (Operations -- Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC)) E02
Nuclear policy (NBC Policy -- Nuclear Warfare & Technology) A6.1
Nuclear Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Nuclear Warfare) B1.1
Operational Planning E08
Operational Reserves E09
Operations -- Airborne & Airmobile E04.2
Operations -- Clandestine & Special Forces E11
Operations -- Home & Civil Defence E06
Operations -- Naval & Amphibious E05
Operations -- Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC) E02
Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention E03
Operations -- Tactical Air Power & Air-to-Ground Combat E04.1
Organizations, Government & Other -- Africa C4.07
Organizations, Government & Other -- Central & South America C4.03
Organizations, Government & Other -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia C4.09
Organizations, Government & Other -- Far East & Australasia C4.04
Organizations, Government & Other -- Middle & Near East C4.06
Organizations, Government & Other -- NATO & the West C4.08
Organizations, Government & Other -- North America C4.02
Organizations, Government & Other -- South & South-East Asia C4.05
Organizations, Government & Other -- UN, International & Transnational C4.10
Organizations, Government & Other -- Western Europe C4.01
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Africa C1.07
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Central & South America C1.03
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia C1.09
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Far East & Australasia C1.04
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Middle & Near East C1.06
Organizations, Ground Forces -- NATO & the West C1.08
Organizations, Ground Forces -- North America C1.02
Organizations, Ground Forces -- South & South-East Asia C1.05
Organizations, Ground Forces -- UN C1.10
Organizations, Ground Forces -- Western Europe C1.01
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Africa C3.07
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Central & South America C3.03
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia C3.09
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Far East & Australasia C3.04
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Middle & Near East C3.06
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- NATO & the West C3.08
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- North America C3.02
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- South & South-East Asia C3.05
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- UN & General C3.10
Organizations, Military Aerospace -- Western Europe C3.01
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Africa C2.07
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Central & South America C2.03
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Eastern Europe & Eurasia C2.09
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Far East & Australasia C2.04
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Middle & Near East C2.06
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- NATO & the West C2.08
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- North America C2.02
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- South & South-East Asia C2.05
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- UN & General C2.10
Organizations, Naval & Maritime -- Western Europe C2.01
Organized Crime (Terrorism, Organized Crime & Insurgency -- Insurgency & Subversion) A7.3
Peace Enforcement (Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention) E03
Peace-Keeping (Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention) E03
Peace Support (Operations -- Peace-Keeping, Peace Enforcement and Humanitarian Intervention) E03
Peace Studies & Conflict Research (Ethics & War) N3
Peace Studies & Conflict Research (Pressure Groups) N2
Peace Studies & Conflict Research (Studies & Research) N1
Personnel (Administration -- Personnel & Financial) G3
Planning (Operational Planning E08
Pressure Groups (Peace Studies & Conflict Research (Pressure Groups)) N2
Power (Technology -- Power, Fuels & Engines) J11
Prisoners of War (Administration -- Prisoners of War & Internment) G6
Propaganda (Images & Influences -- Propaganda, Disinformation & Counter-Measures) M1
Radar & Radio (Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Radar & Radio)) J09.1
Reconnaissance (see Surveillance & Reconnaissance(
Recruitment (Administration -- Recruitment, Mobilization, Disestablishment, Demobilization) G7
Religion and Politics A9
Repairs (Logistics -- Repairs & Maintenance) H4
Reserves (Administration -- Reserve Components) G8
Reserves (Operational Reserves) E09
Resupply (Logistics -- Transport & Resupply) H2
Robotics (Technology -- Man-Machine Interface & Robotics) J06.6
Sensors (Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Optical, Optronic & Acoustic)) J09.2
Simulation (Training -- Simulation & Modelling) L4
Space Policy A2.10
Space Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Space Warfare) B4
Special Forces Operations (Operations -- Clandestine & Special Forces) E11
Special Forces Tactics (Tactics -- Special Forces) F5
Strategy & Doctrine -- Biological Warfare B1.2
Strategy & Doctrine -- Chemical Warfare B1.3
Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Air Power) B2.3
Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (General Principles) B2.4
Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Ground Environment) B2.1
Strategy & Doctrine -- Conventional Warfare (Sea Power) B2.2
Strategy & Doctrine -- Nuclear Warfare B1.1
Strategy & Doctrine -- Space Warfare B4
Strategy & Doctrine -- Unconventional Warfare B3
Surprise (Deception, Concealment & Surprise) D4
Surveillance & Reconnaissance -- Operational D2.2
Surveillance & Reconnaissance -- Strategic D2.1
Surveillance & Reconnaissance -- Tactical D2.3
Tactical Planning & Doctrine (Land Warfare) F9
Tactics -- Air Defence F8
Tactics -- Armour F3
Tactics -- Artillery F4
Tactics -- Combined Arms F1
Tactics -- Engineer F6
Tactics -- Infantry F2
Tactics -- Night Combat F7
Tactics -- Special Forces F5
Technology -- Air Defence J16
Technology -- Ammunition and Explosives J08.3
Technology -- Armoured Combat Vehicles J02
Technology -- Artillery J03
Technology -- Aviation (Fixed Wing) J13.1
Technology -- Aviation (Lighter Than Air) J13.3
Technology -- Aviation (Rotary Wing) J13.2
Technology -- Command, Control, & Communications (C3) J06.1
Technology -- Computers (Hardware) J06.4
Technology -- Computers (Software) J06.5
Technology -- Directed Energy Weapons J17
Technology -- Electronic Warfare (EW) J06.2
Technology -- Electronics J06.3
Technology -- Engineer J05
Technology -- Environment & Weather J19
Technology -- Infantry Weapons & Small Arms J04
Technology -- Internal Security & Counter-Insurgency J15
Technology -- Land Mines J08.1
Technology -- Logistics J07
Technology -- Man-Machine Interface & Robotics J06.6
Technology -- Materials Science J20
Technology -- Mines, Land J08.1
Technology -- Mines, Naval J08.2
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Air-to-Air) J01.5
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Air-to-Surface) J01.4
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Anti-Armour) J01.6
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Guidance Systems & Decoy Measures) J01.7
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Strategic) J01.1
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Surface-to-Air) J01.3
Technology -- Missiles & Rockets (Surface-to-Surface) J01.2
Technology -- Naval J12
Technology -- Naval Mines J08.2
Technology -- Navigation & Position Location J14
Technology -- Nuclear, Biological & Chemical (NBC) J10
Technology -- Power, Fuels & Engines J11
Technology -- Space J18
Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Aerospace Platforms) J09.4
Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Optical, Optronic & Acoustic) J09.2
Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Radar & Radio) J09.1
Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Surface Platforms) J09.3
Terrorism, Organized Crime & Insurgency -- Insurgency & Subversion A7.3
Terrorism, Organized Crime & Insurgency -- Organized Crime & Drug Trafficking A7.2
Terrorism, Organized Crime & Insurgency -- Terrorism A7.1
Training -- Field L2
Training -- General L3
Training -- Simulation & Modelling L4
Training -- Staff & Command L1
Training -- Technical & Specialist L5
Transport (Logistics -- Transport & Resupply) H2
Unconventional Warfare, Strategy & Doctrine (Strategy & Doctrine -- Unconventional Warfare) B3
Unmanned Air Vehicles (Technology -- Surveillance & Intelligence (Aerospace Platforms)) J09.4
Urban Warfare (Climate & Terrain -- Urban Warfare) E12.5
Verification (Arms Control & Disarmament -- Verification & Compliance) A5.2
Warships (Technology -- Naval) J12
Water Obstacles (Climate & Terrain -- Water Obstacles) E12.6
Weather (Technology -- Environment & Weather) J19
World War 1(Military & Political History -- from 1900 to 1918) P3
World War 2, Europe (Military & Political History -- from 1919 to 1945 (WW2 in Europe)) P4.2
World War 2, Pacific (Military & Political History -- from 1919 to 1945 (WW2 in the Pacific)) P4.3